Effects of automatic and controlled processing

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Effects of automatic and controlled processing

Automatic processes[ edit ] When examining the label "automatic" in social psychology, we find that some processes are intended, and others require recent conscious and intentional processing of related information. That being said automatic effects fall into three classes: Those that occur prior to conscious awareness preconscious ; those that require some form of conscious processing but that produce an unintended outcome Effects of automatic and controlled processing ; and those that require a specific type of intentional, goal directed processing goal-dependent.

Preconscious automaticity requires only the triggering proximal stimulus event, and occur prior to or in the absence of any conscious awareness of that event.

Many previous studies suggest that the mere perception of the physical behaviors of others, as well as abstract categories race, gender, role-related that occurs passively in person perception results in increased tendencies to behave in the same way oneself.

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In a study they subliminally exposed one of the participants with an African American face or a Caucasian face before the participants engaged in a verbal game. Participants were shown pictures of both Caucasian and African American men with or without a gun or another object in hand.

The participants had to respond "Shoot" or "Not Shoot" within milliseconds. The results were that participants significantly decided to shoot faster when African Americans had a gun versus Caucasians.

In other words, we need to consciously engage in something and depending on the experience we will unconsciously think, and or behave a certain way.

In the classic Bobo doll experiment a child watches a video of an adult acting aggressive towards a Bobo doll. The results were that the participants in the professor condition outperformed those in the control conditions those not primed at all.

This process is much similar to postconscious in that it requires conscious awareness to be initiated, but after that it can be guided outside of awareness by the unconscious mind.


A good example would be driving a car: When engaged in driving only with enough practice one can almost operate the car almost entirely without conscious awareness. The process needs to be learned enough that it can be automatic, requiring little conscious thought as to how to do it. Controlled processes[ edit ] One definition of a controlled process is an intentionally-initiated sequence of cognitive activities.

Controlled processes require us to think about situations, evaluate and make decisions. An example would be reading this article. We are required to read and understand the concepts of these processes and it takes effort to think conceptually. Controlled processes are thought to be slower, since by definition they require effortful control; therefore, they generally cannot be conducted simultaneously with other controlled processes without task-switching or impaired performance.

So the drawback of controlled processes is that humans are thought to have a limited capacity for overtly controlling behavior.

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Being tightly capacity-limited, controlled processing imposes considerable limitations on speed and the ability to multitask. In a study, participants were randomly assigned into two conditions, one requiring one task small cognitive load and one requiring two tasks heavy cognitive load.

The two-task condition had the same first assignment, but they were required to switch spots with the speaker and take their place after that. Even after being specifically told that they would be given further instructions at the next step, their cognitive load was affected in this study.

Participants in the two-task condition performed more poorly than the one-task condition simply because they had the next task on their mind they had extra cognitive load. Basically, the more tasks someone tries to manage at the same time, the more their performance will suffer.

Processes with ambiguous categorization[ edit ] Some cognitive processes are difficult to categorize as distinctly automatic or controlled, either because they contain components of both types of process or because the phenomena are difficult to define or observe.

An example of the former is driving a car.

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An example of the latter is flow. Flow psychology Flow has been described as involving highly focused attention on the task at hand, loss of self-consciousness, and distorted time perceptionamong other cognitive characteristics.

Some people report that during flow states they are less aware of autonomic responses such as hunger, fatigue, and discomfort. Some researchers hypothesize that because of this, some challenging tasks can counterintuitively require less effort to perform.

Of those correlations, subjects experiencing flow generally report that they perceive a good match between the task requirements and their skills e. Task structure and the clarity of the goal of the task are also thought to be related to when flow occurs.

A study involving video game performance showed that flow in participants determined based on a self-report survey of flow characteristics strongly correlated with performance in the game.

A related study attempted to inhibit and induce flow by biasing the moods of participants.Process technology for the processing of casting and impregnating materials An overview of the HÜBERS technologies in preparation, mixing and dosing.

controlled and automatic processing that must be addressed by a successful theory.

Effects of automatic and controlled processing

These phenomena relate to: consistency in training, serial versus parallel processing, level of effort, robustness to stressors, degree of control, effects on long-term memory, and priority encoding. We detail a computational model of controlled processing, .

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