Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Yes Sorry, something has gone wrong. Labor Unrest and the Distribution of Wealth in the s and s Andrew Carnegie, circa People with lots of money were able to accumulate more wealth faster than others, and conflict of opinion existed as to whether wealth should be more equitably distributed. Those who were paying wages were not thinking about a greater purchasing power for the masses improving the economy and business in general.
The following are notes on the reading. Introduction from Digital History Many American workers experienced the economic transformations of the late 19th century in terms of a wrenching loss of status. For free white men, pre-Civil War America, more than any previous society, was a society of independent producers and property holders.
Farmers, shopkeepers, and craftsmen generally owned the property they worked.
About four-fifths of free adult men owned property on the eve of the Civil War. High rates of physical mobility combined with the availability of western lands to foster a sense that the opportunity to acquire property was available to anyone who had sufficient industry and initiative.
After the Civil War, however, many American workers feared that their status was rapidly eroding. The expanding size of factories made relations between labor and management increasingly impersonal.
Mechanization allowed many industries to substitute semi-skilled and unskilled laborers for skilled craft workers. A massive influx of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe saturated labor markets, slowing the growth of working-class incomes.
Echoing earlier debates over slavery, many working men and women feared that the great industrialists were imposing a new form of feudalism in America, which was reducing "freemen" to "wage slaves.
Native-born workers, fearing competition from low-wage immigrant workers, sometimes agitated for immigration restriction. Many observers feared that the United States was on the brink of a ruinous class war. Steel — work 12 hr days, 7 days a week.
Average of 35, deadinjured per year in industrial accidents. Bythe richest 9 percent of Americans held nearly three-quarters of all wealth in the United States.
But byone American in eight nearly 10 million people lived below the poverty line. Three severe depressions -- and the worst of the three -- rocked the economy in the last third of the century. With hard times came fierce competition as managers searched frantically for ways to cut costs.
Bytwo-thirds of of all industrial work took place in large scale mills such as Homestead. Industrial work featured the use of machines for mass production; the division of labor into intricately organized menial tasks; and the dictatorship of the clock.
They rarely saw the owner. The foreman or supervisor exercised complete authority over the unskilled workers in his section, hiring and firing them, even setting their wages.
During the s and s, Frederick W. He set up standard procedures and offered monetary incentives for beating production quotas.
On one occasion, he designed 15 different ore shovels, each for a separate task. Soon, one hundred and forty men were doing the work of Many workers regarded themselves as citizens of a democratic republic.
They expected to earn a "competence" -- enough money to support and educate their families and enough time to stay abreast of current affairs. Few butt highly skilled workers could realize such democratic dreams.
More and lore, labor was managed as another part of an integrated system of industry. Ordinary workers refused to perform as cogs. In a variety of ways they sought to exert some control. Workers took off on traditional holy days or saints days, or did not come into work on "blue Monday. Or they simply walked off the job.
Come spring, factories often reported turnover of and percent. Women and children therefore had to go to work. On averagechildren worked 60 hours per week and took home pay that was a third the size of adult males.
Many women involved in the garment industry worked in their homes, cutting and sewing garments.
African American men faced discrimination. Working class Americans did improve their overall lot. The number of hours worked declined after The Rise of Industrial America () timeline covers westward expansion, immigration, urbanization, industrialization, labor and railroad with primary sources from American Memory.
Analyze the impact of any two of the following on the American Industrial worker between Government Action Immigration Labor Union Technology Changes During post-Reconstruction all the way to end of the Gilded Age, certain factors and movements came about that affected and also involved the American industrial worker during .
The movement in organized labor from to to improve the position of workers was unsuccessful because of the inherent weaknesses of unions and the failures of their strikes, the negative public attitudes toward organized labor, widespread government corruption, and the tendency of government to side with big business.
Start studying Industry, Big Business, and Labor Unions, Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. During technological changes as well as labor unions had great impact on the average American industrial worker either it be positive or negatively in the sense that workers were abused and underpaid to the point where their needed to be change.
In conclusion, from very few advances were made through organized labor in achieving better working conditions for workers. A series of failed strikes, the American attitude of worker inferiority and the governments passive role all contributed to this movements lack of success.