Contact Us Navigation and Related Instruments in 16th-Century England By the dawn of the sixteenth century, the ancient art of navigation had begun to develop rapidly in response to oceanic explorers who needed to find their positions without landmarks, to determine the locations of their discoveries, and to establish routes between the new-found lands and home.
Establishments — Disestablishments The 16th century begins with the Julian year and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October During the 16th century, Spain and Portugal explored the world's seas and opened worldwide oceanic trade routes.
This era of colonialism established mercantilism as the leading school of economic thought, where the economic system was viewed as a zero-sum game in which any gain by one party required a loss by another.
In Europethe Protestant Reformation gave a major blow to the authority of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. European politics became dominated by religious conflicts, with the groundwork for the epochal Thirty Years' War being laid towards the end of the century.
In ItalyLuca Pacioli published the first work ever on accounting and Galileo Galilei made the first thermometer. In Englandthe Italian Alberico Gentili wrote the first book on public international law and divided secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology.
In the Middle Eastthe Ottoman Empire continued to expand, with the Sultan taking the title of Caliphwhile dealing with a resurgent Persia. Iran and Iraq were caught by major popularity of the Shiite sect of Islam under the rule of the Safavid dynasty of warrior-mystics, providing grounds for a Persia independent of the majority- Sunni Muslim world.
China evacuated the coastal areas, because of Japanese piracy. Japan was suffering a severe civil war at the time, known as the Sengoku period.
Elsewhere in Asia, Mughal Emperor Akbar extended the power of the Mughal Empire to cover most of the southern lands of the continent.
His rule significantly influenced arts and culture in the region. Copernicus proposed the heliocentric universewhich was met with strong resistance, and Tycho Brahe refuted the theory of celestial spheres through observational measurement of the appearance of a Milky Way supernova.
These events directly challenged the long-held notion of an immutable universe supported by Ptolemy and Aristotleand led to major revolutions in astronomy and science.The Dutch navigator William Barents led three expeditions east of Novaya Zemlya, and on the third expedition in claimed Spitsbergen.
From the early 16th century, Russian navigators used shallow draft vessels with reinforced bottoms (kochi) to cross the Kara Sea and explore the Ob and Yenisey rivers. The 16th century, to , a century littered with discovery, exploration and creative invention, Shakespeare, Copernicus, Michelangelo, Luther the 16th Century is a period of time when so much divides and yet there is a coalescence of talent and thinking that reinforces itself from start to finish.
Renaissance and Humanism in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries Home > The 16th century > Renaissance and Humanism in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries At the end of the Hundred Years’ War in , Europe was peaceful for a while as there were less disease epidemics and less conflicts.
The 16th century was a time of unprecedented change that saw the very beginning of the modern era of science, great exploration, religious and political turmoil, and extraordinary literature.
In , Copernicus published his theory that the earth was not the center of the universe, but rather, that. The 16th century begins with the Julian year and ends with either the Julian or the Gregorian year (depending on the reckoning used; the Gregorian calendar introduced a lapse of 10 days in October ).
The 16th century is regarded by historians as the century in which the rise of the West occurred.
The Age of Exploration, also known as the Age of Discovery, is the period in European history when overseas exploration began to grow in popularity. This era began in .